Main Article Content

Abstract

Esophagogastric cancers are serious malignancies with high mortality and low overall survival for advanced tumors. Detection of premalignant lesions and early treatment of malignant lesions are of paramount importance. Precancerous esophagogastric conditions develop from interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Chronic irritation and inflammation may result in metaplasia, increased mutations, cellular
atypia, and altered function (dysplasia). Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is one of the most important risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis, but other environmental factors (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, nitrites, infection) and autoimmune disorders play a role as well. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) usually arises in the distal esophagus and is linked to obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) typically occurs in the presence of risk factors causing chronic inflammation (e.g. tobacco, alcohol abuse, achalasia, tylosis). Highquality endoscopic imaging is of primary importance in the diagnosis and assessment of premalignant and early malignant esophagogastric lesions. Biological markers such as aberrant p53 protein expression may be associated with increased risk of malignant transformation of precancerous lesions; however, none of those biomarkers has been validated for either diagnosis or risk stratification yet.

Keywords

esophagogastric cancer premalignant precancerous metaplasia dysplasia atrophic gastritis Barrett’s esophagus Helicobacter pylori risk factors

Article Details

How to Cite
Troian, M., Nagliati, C., & Balani, A. (2020). Esophagogastric premalignant conditions. A literature review. Journal of Gastric Surgery, 2(3), 79-83. https://doi.org/10.36159/jgs.v2i3.56

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